EECS 280 Project 4: Linked List and Calculator

Due Monday, 26 March 2018, 8:00 pm

Table of Contents

Project Roadmap

This is a big picture view of what you’ll need to do to complete this project. Most of the pieces listed here also have a corresponding section later on in the spec that goes into more detail.

The autograded portion of the project (including evaluation of your test cases) is worth 85% of the total project grade. Hand grading of coding practices is worth 15%.

Download the starter code

Use the tutorial from project 1 to get your visual debugger set up. Use this wget link https://eecs280staff.github.io/p4-calculator/starter-files.tar.gz.

Before setting up your visual debugger, you’ll need to rename each .h.starter file to a .h file.

$ mv List.h.starter List.h
$ mv Stack.h.starter Stack.h

You’ll also need to create these new files and add function stubs.

$ touch calc.cpp

These are the executables you’ll use in this project:

If you’re working in a partnership, set up version control for a team.

Familiarize yourself with the code structure

The code structure is templated and object-oriented, with classes representing a doubly-linked list and a stack.

Test and implement the ADTs

You are provided interfaces for the List and Stack classes. Test and implement these.

Test and implement the postfix calculator

Write and test a main() function that runs an interactive calculator program. You will use the Stack class to implement a postfix (also known as RPN) calculator. In a postfix calculator, operators appear after their operands, rather than in between them. For example, to compute (2 + 3) * 5, you would type 2 3 + 5 *


Submit the following files to the autograder.

List Class

The member functions you have to implement are given in List.h.starter. You should copy that file to List.h and then implement each member function. The main difference from the version in lecture is that it is doubly-linked. It also allows you to create an iterator and then use the iterator to search, insert, or delete at any position in the list. Note that this is a class template, so that it can hold data of any type. For class templates, it is necessary to give the code for member functions inside the header file (it turns out that the compiler requires that in order to instantiate the class, given a specific type). Therefore, there will not be a List.cpp. See the lecture slides on how to add member functions in the header file for a class template.

You must not change the public interface of the List class, and you must use a doubly-linked list (i.e., nodes chained using pointers) implementation (no arrays or vectors, etc.). The basic member functions that List provides are in List.h.starter.

You must manage memory allocation so that there are no memory leaks, etc. For example, when adding an item, you will need to dynamically allocate the memory for a node to hold the item’s value and the pointer to the next node in the linked list. When removing items, you will need to delete that previously allocated memory. The List destructor needs to ensure that all the nodes in the linked list are deleted.

To compile and run your List tests, run the following commands:

$ make List_tests.exe
$ ./List_tests.exe

Since C++ only instantiates templates that are needed, we have included a simple program that attempts to instantiate every member of the List template to make sure they compile. To compile and run the public List compilation test, run the following commands:

$ make List_compile_check.exe
$ ./List_compile_check.exe

Writing unit tests for List

You must write and submit tests for the List class. Your test cases MUST use the unit test framework, otherwise the autograder will not be able to evaluate them. Since unit tests should be small and run quickly, you are limited to 50 TEST() items per file and your whole test suite must finish running in less than 5 seconds. Please bear in mind that you DO NOT need 50 unit tests to catch all the bugs. Writing targeted test cases and avoiding redundant tests can help catch more bugs in fewer tests.

How we grade your tests

We will autograde your List unit tests by running them against a number of implementations of those modules. If a test of yours fails for one of those implementations, that is considered a report of a bug in that implementation.

We grade your tests by the following procedure:

  1. We compile and run your test cases with a correct solution. Test cases that pass are considered valid. Tests that fail (i.e. falsely report a bug in the solution) are invalid. The autograder gives you feedback about which test cases are valid/invalid. Since unit tests should be small and run quickly, your whole test suite must finish running in less than 5 seconds.
  2. We have a set of intentionally incorrect implementations that contain bugs. You get points for each of these “buggy” implementations that your valid tests can catch.
  3. How do you catch the bugs? We compile and run all of your valid test cases against each buggy implementation. If any of these test cases fail (i.e. report a bug), we consider that you have caught the bug and you earn the points for that bug.

Stack Class

You should complete the implementation of List (and test it) before working on Stack. The skeleton code for Stack is given in Stack.h.starter. Copy Stack.h.starter to Stack.h. You must only use the public interface of the List class to implement the stack. The List class should not have any friends.

The core functions of the Stack class are push(item), pop(), and top(). See the RMEs for the description of these operations. Given the List type, the basic operations on a stack, push() and pop(), are straightforward to implement. To push, you can simply add an element at one end of the list (either end will do). To pop, you simply remove the element from the same end of the list. Another function is top() that simply returns the top element (as a reference to eliminate an unnecessary copy and to allow it to be modified) without modifying the stack.

Though you will not be turning them in, you should write your own test cases for the Stack class since the public tests are not comprehensive. Write them in the Stack_tests.cpp file.

To compile and run your Stack tests, run the following commands:

$ make Stack_tests.exe
$ ./Stack_tests.exe

Postfix (RPN) Calculator

You will now use your Stack template to develop a Reverse-Polish Notation calculator in calc.cpp. The calculator must support integers and floating-point values (doubles).

Important: In order for your program to produce the correct output you must set the floating-point precision of cout to 4 using the following line of code at the beginning of your main function:


An RPN calculator is one in which the operators appear after their respective operands, rather than in between them. So, instead of computing the following:

((2 - 3) * 4) / (-6)

an RPN calculator would compute this equivalent expression (note that “n” means negate):

2 3 - 4 * 6 n /

RPN notation is convenient for several reasons. First, no parentheses are necessary since the computation is always unambiguous. Second, such a calculator is convenient to implement with a stack. In the case above, when you see a number, you simply push it on the stack. When you see an operator, you pop the top two values (or just one for a unary operator), apply the operator on them, and then push the result back on the stack. In the case above, the stack would change as follows (top value shown first):

Notice that the stack only contains numbers at all times. The operators never go on the stack.

The calculator program is invoked with no arguments, and it starts out with an empty stack. It takes its input from the standard input stream and writes its output to the standard output stream. Here are the commands your calculator must respond to and what you must do for each. Each command is separated from the next one by one or more whitespace characters (including possibly newlines).

Input Action
<some number> a number can be in any of the following forms:
 • one or more digits [0 – 9] (i.e. 2, 42, 900)
 • one or more digits followed by a decimal point (i.e. 2., 42., 900.)
 • zero or more digits, followed by a decimal point, followed by one or more digits (i.e. 3.5, 2.333333, .5)
Notice that all these are non-negative values. Push the value on the stack. The following are examples of things that are not valid numbers for user input: -2, -0, 1,234. Only non-negative integers are entered (to simplify your project).
+ pop the top two numbers off the stack, add them together, and push the result onto the top of the stack. This requires a stack with at least two operands.

Note: You should avoid making multiple calls to Stack member functions within one statement, since the order in which operands are evaluated is undefined in C++. For example, in the expression
expr1 + expr2
it is possible for expr2 to be evaluated before expr1. This can result in undefined behavior when expr1 and expr2 have side effects.
- pop the top two numbers off the stack, subtract the first number popped from the second, and push the result onto the top of the stack. This requires a stack with at least two operands.
* pop the top two numbers off the stack, multiply them together, and push the result onto the top of the stack. This requires a stack with at least two operands.
/ pop the top two numbers off the stack, divide the second value popped by the first number, and push the result onto the top of the stack. This requires a stack with at least two operands.
Note: Your calculator must check for division by zero. If the user attempts to divide by zero, do the following before continuing the program as normal:
 • Put the two popped elements back on the stack in their original order
 • Print an error message using exactly the following line of code:
   cout << "Error: Division by zero" << endl;
d duplicate: pop the top item off the stack and push two copies of the number onto the top of the stack. This requires a stack with at least one operand.
r reverse: pop the top two items off the stack, push the first popped item onto the top of the stack and then the push the second item onto the top of the stack (this just reverses the order of the top two items on the stack). This requires a stack with at least two operands.
p print: print the top item on the stack to standard output, followed by a newline. This requires a stack with at least one operand and leaves the stack unchanged.
c clear: pop all items from the stack. This input is always valid.
a print-all: print all items on the stack in one line, from top-most to bottom-most, each value followed by a single space. The end of the output must be followed by exactly one newline. This input is always valid and leaves the stack unchanged. For an empty stack, for example, only the newline will be printed. For a stack with two elements, say with stack contents being [47, 42] (top value shown first), the following will be printed:

47 42 <NEWLINE>

(Where <NEWLINE> corresponds to the newline character produced by endl or "\n").
n negate: negate the top item on the stack. This requires a stack with at least one operand.
q quit: exit the calculator with a 0 exit value. This input is always valid. End-of-file (e.g., typing control-D on Linux) must also cause the calculator to exit with status 0. Note: do not call exit(0), because it will cause memory leaks!

Each command is separated by whitespace.

For simplicity, you can assume that you are given valid input in our tests. No error checking on inputs to the calculator is required.

Implement your calculator in a file called calc.cpp.

To compile your calculator, you can use:

$ make calc.exe

To run your calculator interactively, you can use:

$ ./calc.exe

And then start typing the commands.

Negative zero

The C++ double format distinguishes between positive and negative zero. The following example illustrates negative zero:

$ ./calc.exe
1 n 0 * p

Your program should not do anything special for negative zero.

Requirements and Restrictions

It is our goal for you to gain practice with good C++ code, classes, and dynamic memory.

Modify .cpp files, List.h and Stack.h Modify other .h files
For List and Stack, make helper member functions private Modify the public interface of List or Stack
Use these libraries: <iostream>, <string>, <cassert>, <sstream>, <utility> Use other libraries
#include a library to use its functions Assume that the compiler will find the library for you (some do, some don’t)
Use C++ strings Use C-strings
Send all output to standard out (AKA stdout) by using cout Send any output to standard error (AKA stderr) by using cerr
const global variables Global or static variables
Pass large structs or classes by reference Pass large structs or classes by value
Pass by const reference when appropriate “I don’t think I’ll modify it …”
Use Valgrind to check for memory errors “It’s probably fine…”

Starter Code

You can find the starter files on the course website.

File(s) Description
List.h.starter Skeleton List class template header file without function implementations. Rename this file to List.h and then add your function implementations.
Stack.h.starter Skeleton Stack class template. Rename it to Stack.h and then add your function implementations.
List_tests.cpp Add your List unit tests to this file.
List_compile_check.cpp A “does my code compile” test for List.h
Stack_tests.cpp Add your Stack unit tests to this file. Includes a few basic test cases to begin with.
Simple test cases for the calculator program.
Makefile A Makefile that has targets for compiling the published test cases and your own tests. Use
$ make test
to compile and run all tests.
The unit test framework you must use to write your test cases.

Appendix A: What’s in a typename?

You saw the use of typename for declaring templates. When compiling your project, you may get the following kind of error:

./Stack.h:94:8: error: missing 'typename' prior to dependent type name 'List<T>::Iterator'
List<T>::Iterator i;

If you see an error message that talks about missing ‘typename’ prior to dependent type name, simply stick in the keyword “typename” before the type declaration. In the instance above, it would become:

typename List<T>::Iterator i;

The same thing would apply if you declared a loop variable. For example:

for (List<T>::Iterator i; /*...*/)

may need to become (if you get an error from the compiler):

for (typename List<T>::Iterator i; /*...*/)

Discussion of dependent types and why we have to insert the keyword typename is beyond the scope of this course (the reason is quite subtle and deep). If you want to see some explanation, see this article:


Appendix B: Project 4 Coding Practices Checklist

Winter 2018: We are beta testing automated style grading on this project. You’ll see style checking results on the autograder, worth zero (0) points. Check out the style checking tutorial.

The following are coding practices you should adhere to when implementing the project, and the criteria are similar to what our hand graders look for. You do not have to submit this checklist.

General code quality:

Test case quality:

Project-specific quality: